anesthesia svenska: It is only because the people of the country lack the atmosphere of openly discussing science, personal gains occasionally, or they are lost to the world due to confidentiality; or because of the limited energy and time of the individual, they cannot do their best and do their best, so that there is a lack of successors. All previous efforts have been lost.
Hua Tuo, the first anesthesiologist recorded in the history books, invented a “math” made from Datura flower Yijin, Shengcaowu, Fragrant anesthesia svenska, Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong each four dollars, and Araceae one coin. Boiled loose”. There is a record of Alchemy in the book of the Later Han Dynasty: “…If the disease is in the inside and the medicine is out of reach, he will take another sesame boil soup with alcohol, and he will be drunk and feel ignorant. The abdomen and back will be broken and the abdomen will accumulate. If it is in the intestines and stomach, wash it before cutting to remove the disease, then suture it, and apply divine ointment. The wound will be healed in four or five days, and it will be restored within a month….”
It can be seen that as early as the Han Dynasty
general anesthesia was indeed available for laparotomy. Others, such as “Chicken Crows the Soul Fragrance” may be a kind of inhalation anesthesia. And “seeing blood seals the throat” may be a kind of muscle relaxant. If this is the case, then my country’s anesthesiology has indeed achieved quite a long time.
The history of anesthesia in the West
1. The first period
Hua Tuo and anesthetics
Hua Tuo and anesthetics
(1) From the time of surgical operation until 1846, when ether inhalation anesthesia was successfully demonstrated at Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States. During this period, only certain herbal medicines or alcoholic beverages were generally used to make patients trance. Because the painkillers are not effective enough, the operation must be completed as quickly as possible, and usually several strong and powerful assistants are needed to help “control” the patient. Of course, with the surgeon’s blade wielding, the patient made bursts of pain and crying from time to time. In this case, only simple and rough operations can be done that takes a very short time. It is said that all the operations at that time were performed by a barber, which was also unexpected.
(2) Laughing gas:
①In the history of anesthesia in the West, Nitrous oxide was first discovered, and it was found in the air by the Spanish chemist Raymundus Lullius (1275).
②Joseph priestly is very capable and famous. He found a lot of gas. He is also the ancestor of Coca-Cola carbonated drinks. He was the first person to produce laughing gas.
③At the end of the 18th century, Britain was like Taiwan now. SPA was popular for health preservation. There were many SPAs everywhere, which was even better than that of Taiwan now. While enjoying SPA, guests could inhale nitrous oxide and feel comfortable, sweet and inhaled. Will feel drowsy. However, the British are better than the Taiwanese in that they will want to do research. Some wealthy owners of SPAs will spend money to ask scientists to study what gas will make the guests comfortable. Sir Humphrey Davy published a book on N2O. At that time, the anesthetic effect of laughing gas was not discovered, but I felt that the pain could be relieved or removed after inhalation. Because children can laugh involuntarily when inhaling N2O, it is called laughing gas.
(3) The so-called “balanced anesthesia
concept has indeed sprouted before this period. At that time, when surgery was performed on the limbs, in addition to the aforementioned systemic administration, external force was often used to compress the limbs’ nerves to numb the limbs and reduce pain. In 1807, Baron Larrey had used ice cubes to freeze the limbs that were about to be sawn off. So speaking of it, the “hypothermic anesthetic” that is still new to some people has already existed more than a hundred years ago. As for the anesthesia application of hypnotism, literature records have already been implemented in 1821. Of course, in terms of technology, it’s not the same as it used to be.
(4) According to oral tradition, in 1842
William E. Clarke of Rochester used ether to extract a painless tooth for a woman (I heard it was a warbler). After inhaling ether, it will make the inhaler unable to coma. Therefore, it has been circulated that the Golden Light Party used ether to stun the victim, so that the victim was deceived by not knowing what he had done. It was pure nonsense, but the victim tried to hide his greed. The excuse made up is nothing more.
2. The second period
(1) On October 16, 1846, William TG. Morton publicly demonstrated ether inhalation anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, USA, which aroused the general interest of physicians in inhalation anesthesia and led to anesthesia svenska. Learning enters the second period. Because this period is mainly the substantial development of inhalation anesthesia, it can also be called the “inhalation phase” (Inhalation phase). Morton demonstrated that in the case of anesthesia with ether infusion, the surgeon was performed by John C. Warren, and the operation was to ligate the mandibular hemangioma.
(2) According to the literature, Crawford W. Long used ether to anesthesia svenska the patient as early as 1842, and cut off two tumors on the neck. He received two dollars for this. Moreover, he also further studied the effects of hypnosis, personal pain threshold and ether on pain. Then, it was not announced until 1984. However, Yi Shimen’s general interest in inhalation anesthesia only began after Morton gave a work demonstration. Therefore, it is generally believed that this period began in 1846.
(3) Before discussing Morton, let’s talk about his failed classmate Horace Wells: One day Wells found a man who had taken N2O on the road. His foot was injured and he didn’t feel any pain. The next day, he used N2O to extract his teeth successfully. However, in 1845 The public demonstration at Harvard University in January failed. The main reason is that the anesthesia effect of N2O is very weak. Its MAC (minimal alveolar concentration) is 105, which means that 100 people must be anesthetized with 105% N2O before 50 people are fascinated, and of course it fails. Now the commonly used inhalation anesthetic is halothane, its MAC value is only 0.7, the difference between the two is really big! The end of the story is that Wells is heartbroken and commits suicide. ※MAC (minimal alveolar concentration) minimum alveolar concentration: After inhaling a certain anesthetic gas, 50 out of 100 mice become unconscious and achieve the anesthetic effect. At this time, the concentration of the gas is called MAC. Therefore, the larger the MAC, the worse its anesthesia svenska power! Therefore, it is of course not feasible to use 105% of N2O to anesthetize 50% of the people, because the total amount of air is only 100, it is impossible to have 105 N2O, and it is impossible to inhale all anesthetics, because at least there must be 20~30% O2.
(4) The ancestor of anesthesia ( anesthesia svenska) recorded in official documents—William Thomas Green Morton (1819-1868)
He was a student of Jackson and learned the tragic story of Wells through Jackson. So he tried to use ether to anesthetize the patient’s teeth in the clinic (he felt that N2O was not effective), and got a lot of successful experience. Finally, he was also at Harvard University. A successful public demonstration was made inside, an epoch-making contribution to the history of anesthesia, and a breakthrough in surgery! Because there is no anesthesia, surgery cannot progress. The site where he demonstrated at that time is still very well preserved.
(5) James Young Simpson is an obstetrician and gynecologist. Once he had a party with a friend and he inhaled chloroform (chloroform) for fun, and found that it had anesthetic effect. In 1847, he successfully applied chloroform (Chloroform) to obstetric patients and added another one. A powerful inhalation anesthetic.
(6) But it was John Snow who really contributed a lot to the anesthesia. In 1853, when the Queen Victoria gave birth to her second child inanesthesia svenska, John Snow used face mask to let her inhale anesthetics for painless delivery, which achieved a great deal. The effect of propaganda caused a great popularity throughout the UK.