giardiasis tratamiento, it,s signs /symptoms and causes in details

By | February 28, 2021

 

Giardiasis tratamiento: Giardia trophozoites are firmly adsorbed on the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum, and reproduce in two divisions.

Cause:The released parasites quickly transform into cysts resistant to the external environment, and the cysts are excreted with the feces It is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, and water-borne infection is the main source of infection of Giardiasis.  In addition, it can also be directly infected by human-human contact. In addition to humans, wild animals can become its host. Therefore, the stream water in the mountains and the urban water supply system that has been chlorinated but not strictly filtered are the root causes of the water epidemic.

Giardiasis tratamiento

 Clinical manifestations

The incubation period is generally 1 to 3 weeks, with an average of 9 to 15 days. The clinical manifestations are mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. The typical symptoms in the acute phase are fulminant diarrhea, watery stools and foul smell, and a small amount of mucus, but mostly no pus or blood. Patients are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, and belching. Abdominal pain is common, mostly in the upper abdomen and colic. Some patients have systemic symptoms such as low fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and loss of appetite.
The acute phase lasts for several days. If the Giardiasis tratamiento is not timely, it may turn into subacute infection, which mainly manifests as intermittent diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, etc., which can last for several months. The chronic phase mainly manifests as repeated attacks or persistent loose stools. It is periodic short-term diarrhea. The stools are loose stools floating on the surface with yellow bubbles, foul smelling, usually less than 10 times a day, abdominal distension, belching, anorexia, nausea, but abdominal cramps are rare, and the course of the disease can often last several years.
Long-term malabsorption in children and severely infected people can lead to weight loss, weight loss, developmental disorders, anemia, etc., such as when the worms invade the gallbladder and bile duct, the patient will show symptoms of cholecystitis and cholangitis, and pain in the right upper abdomen or under the xiphoid process. Nausea and vomiting, fever, tenderness in the gallbladder area, etc., the liver is affected by the lesions. The main manifestations of patients are liver pain, hepatomegaly with tenderness and liver function damage. In addition, some patients may manifest as gastritis and appendicitis.
an examination

 1. Pathogen inspection

Trophozoites can be found in fresh diarrhea stools, and cysts are mostly found in mushy stools and shaped stools. Trophoblasts can be found by directly smearing the stool with normal saline; the cysts can be easily identified after staining with iodine solution, zinc sulfate floating method, etc. Concentration method can improve the detection rate of cysts. Stool examination should be sent for three inspections, and the positive rate of three inspections can be increased to 97%. Duodenal drainage, small intestinal mucus or biopsy tissues can be found.

 2. Immunology test

Can be divided into two types of detection of serum antibodies and fecal antigens.
(1) Detection antibody Since the successful pure culture of Giardia lamblia, it is possible to prepare high-purity antigens, which greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity of immunodiagnosis. Two strains of Giardia lamblia have been established in my country. Cultivation provides conditions for domestic Giardiasis tratamiento. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) check patient serum antibodies.
(2) The detection of antigens can be performed by enzyme-linked immunoassay (double sandwich method), dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent test (Dot-ELISA), convective immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), etc. to detect antigens in fecal diluents. Detection of fecal antigens can not only be used for diagnosis , You can also observe the effect.

 3. Molecular Biology Diagnosis

In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene product of Giardia lamblia, which can detect an amplified copy equivalent to the amount of trophozoite genomic DNA. Radiolabeled chromosomal DNA probes can also be used To detect trophozoites and cysts, molecular biology methods have high specificity and sensitivity.

 4. Other checks

Abdominal B-ultrasound to understand the liver and gallbladder conditions, still need to do chest X-ray and ECG examination.

 diagnosis

Giardiasis tratamiento disease is based on the patient’s diarrhea, abdominal distension, pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen, foul smell in the stool, and general diagnosis of Giardia lamblia is not difficult. The diagnosis can be made by finding characteristic trophozoites or cysts in the stool. These worms are easy to find in the acute phase, but they are excreted intermittently at a low level during the chronic infection period. Therefore, it is necessary to repeatedly check the feces or obtain the contents of the upper small intestine by nylon thread or endoscopy. Immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can also be used to detect Giardia or Giardia antigen in feces, as well as specific DNA probe technology.

 Differential diagnosis

Amoebic dysentery, bacillary dysentery or other causes of gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, hepatic tenderness, and liver function impairment should be considered for cholecystitis, biliary tract infection and viral hepatitis, and repeated search for Giardia Lans Flagellates are an important step in identification.
complication
Disorders of water and electrolytes can occur, which can cause anemia, malnutrition, and growth retardation.

Treatment

Patients should be isolated according to intestinal infectious diseases and diet controlled. Antibiotics should be given when combined with bacterial infection. Patients who are diagnosed and highly suspected of the disease should be treated with anti-pathogen drugs. The available drugs are:

 1. Metronidazole

Generally, the protozoa in the feces can become negative after 3 days of taking the medicine, and the symptoms gradually disappear. Common side effects include metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, fatigue, and lethargy. Alcohol should be forbidden during the medication, pregnant women and breastfeeding patients should be prohibited.
2. Furazolidone.
3. Albendazole
It is a promising anti-giardia lamblia drug.
4. Praziquantel
The therapeutic effect of this drug needs to be further studied and determined.

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