Inflammation synonym is a very common and important basic pathological process, and most of the common diseases and frequently-occurring diseases of various organs (such as furuncle, carbuncle, pneumonia, hepatitis, nephritis, etc.) are all inflammatory diseases. The defensive response of living tissues with vascular system to injury factors is called inflammation.
inflammation synonym Relationship
Types of inflammation synonym
2 Classification of inflammation
3 causes of inflammation
4 Pathological changes
6 defensive effect
7 Chronic inflammation
8 Acute inflammation
9 Outcome of inflammation
10 Gynecological inflammation
11 gynecological symptoms
Inflammation: The defensive response of living tissues with vascular system to injury factors is inflammation. The vascular response is a central link in the inflammatory process.
Inflammation is what people usually call “inflammation
It is a defensive response of the body to stimuli, manifested by redness, swelling, heat, pain and dysfunction. Inflammation may be infectious inflammation caused by infection or non-infectious inflammation caused by infection. Under normal circumstances, inflammation is beneficial and is the body’s automatic defense response, but sometimes, inflammation is also harmful, such as attacks on the body’s own tissues, inflammation synonym that occurs in transparent tissues, and so on.
In the inflammatory process
on the one hand, damage factors directly or indirectly cause the destruction of tissues and cells, on the other hand, through inflammation synonym congestion and exudation reaction, to dilute, kill and surround the damage factors. At the same time, the damaged tissue can be repaired and healed through the regeneration of parenchymal and interstitial cells. Therefore, it can be said that inflammation is a unified process of injury and anti-injury.
2 Classification of inflammation
The response of inflammation to the damaged local tissues of the body is called inflammatory response.
1: Divided into acute and chronic according to the duration
The main symptoms of acute inflammation are redness, swelling, pain, etc., that is, inflammation mainly composed of the reaction of the vascular system. Local blood vessels dilate, blood is slow, blood components such as plasma and neutrophils leak into the tissues, the exudation is mainly centered on the veins, but the exudation of high molecular substances such as proteins only uses the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the blood vessels and the penetration of colloids The pressure difference cannot be explained. The role of various substances that can enhance vascular permeability is paid attention to here. Such substances mainly include: (1) Amine substances such as histamine and serotonin can cause immediate reactions after inflammatory stimulation.
(2) Polypeptides represented by bradykinin
lysyl bradykinin, methionyl-lysyl-bradykinin (methio-nyl-lysyl-bradykinin). Its common feature is to increase vascular permeability, contract smooth muscle, dilate blood vessels, and promote leukocyte migration. The structures of bradykinin and lysyl bradykinin have been determined. (3) Protease such as plasmin, kallikrein, globulin-PF and other protease can not be the substance of vascular permeability. But it can make kininoge (kininoge) into kinin (kinin) and play a role. However, where these substances act on blood vessels and the mechanism of action are mostly unknown. Histologically, it can be seen that the vascular exudation response and the repair process are mixed together when acute inflammation occurs. And visible infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and proliferation of fibroblasts.
2.The main tissue changes from inflammation can be classified as follows:
(1) Degenerative inflammation.
(2) Exudative inflammation (serous inflammation, fibrinitis, purulent inflammation, hemorrhagic inflammation, necrotizing inflammation, catarrhal inflammation).
(3) Proliferative inflammation.
(4) Specific inflammation (tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy, lymphogranuloma, etc.)
3. causes of inflammation
Any factor that can cause tissue damage can be the cause of inflammation, that is, inflammatory agent. Can be summarized into the following categories:
(1) Biological factors
Bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, fungi, spirochetes and parasites are the most common causes of inflammation. Inflammation caused by biological pathogens is also called infection. Exotoxins and endotoxins produced by bacteria can directly damage tissues; viruses replicate in infected cells and cause cell necrosis; certain antigenic pathogens can damage tissues through the induced immune response after infection, such as parasitic infections and tuberculosis.
(2) Physical factors
High temperature, low temperature, radioactive materials, ultraviolet rays, etc. and mechanical damage.
(3) Chemical factors
Exogenous chemical substances such as strong acids, strong bases, turpentine, mustard gas, etc. Endogenous toxic substances such as decomposition products of necrotic tissue and metabolites such as urea accumulated in the body under certain pathological conditions.
(4) Foreign body
Foreign bodies that enter the human body through various channels, such as various metals, wood chips, dust particles, and surgical sutures, can cause varying degrees of inflammation synonym due to their different antigenicity.
(5) Necrotic tissue
Causes such as ischemia or hypoxia can cause tissue necrosis, which is a potential inflammatory factor. The hyperemia and bleeding zone and the infiltration of inflammatory cells at the edge of the fresh infarct are the manifestations of inflammation synonym.
When the body’s immune response is abnormal, it can cause inappropriate or excessive immune response, causing tissue and cell damage and leading to inflammation. Tissue damage caused by immune response is most common in various types of hypersensitivity reactions: type I allergies such as allergic rhinitis and urticaria, type II allergies such as anti-basement membrane glomerulonephritis, and type III allergies such as immunity Glomerulonephritis caused by complex deposition, type IV allergies such as tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.; in addition, there are many autoimmune diseases such as lymphocytic thyroiditis, ulcerative colitis and so on.
4 Pathological changes
The basic pathological changes of inflammation The basic pathological changes of inflammation are usually summarized as the deterioration, exudation and proliferation of local tissues.
The degeneration and necrosis of the inflammatory local tissues is called alteration (alteration). Degeneration is the damage process caused by inflammatory factors, and it is seen in the form of changes in local cell and tissue metabolism and physical and chemical properties. Metamorphosis can occur in both parenchymal cells and interstitial cells. The deterioration of parenchymal cells often manifests as cell edema, steatosis, cell coagulation necrosis and liquefaction necrosis. Interstitial degeneration often manifests as mucoid degeneration, hyaline degeneration of connective tissue, and fibroid necrosis.
Degeneration is caused by the direct action of inflammatory factors, or is mediated by local blood circulation disorders and immune mechanisms that occur during inflammation, as well as the result of the introduction of inflammatory reaction products. The severity of deterioration depends on two aspects: the nature and strength of the inflammatory factor and the body’s responsiveness. The hydrolase released after the degeneration and necrosis of tissues and cells dissolves and liquefies the damaged tissues and cells, and further causes the surrounding tissues and cells to deteriorate, resulting in organ dysfunction.
As early as the first century AD, the Roman writer Cornelius celsus proposed that inflammation is mainly manifested in four major symptoms: redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), fever (calor) and pain (clolor) in the affected part. It was not until the nineteenth century that the famous German pathologist Virchow listed local dysfunction as the fifth symptom of inflammation.
The inflammation is most pronounced when the body surface is inflamed. It often manifests as redness, swelling, heat, pain and dysfunction. The mechanism is:
1. Red: It is caused by congestion in the inflammatory lesion. At the initial stage of inflammation, it is bright red due to the increase of local oxygenated hemoglobin due to arterial congestion. With the development of inflammation, the blood flow is slow, congested and stagnant, and the local tissues increase in reduced hemoglobin, so it appears dark red.
2. Swelling: mainly due to exudate, especially inflammatory edema. In chronic inflammation, the proliferation of tissues and cells can also cause local swelling.
3. Fever: Fever is caused by arterial congestion and increased metabolism. Interleukin I (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and prostaglandin E (PGE) produced by white blood cells can cause fever.
4. Pain: The factors that cause inflammation and local pain are related to many factors. The accumulation of potassium ions and hydrogen ions in local inflammatory lesions, especially the stimulation of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin, serotonin, bradykinin, etc., is the main cause of pain. Exudates in the inflammatory lesion cause tissue swelling, increased tension, and compression of nerve endings can cause pain, so the pain is relatively mild when the loose tissue is inflamed, and the inflammation of the dental pulp and periosteum often causes severe pain; in addition, the inflamed organs are enlarged, Increase the tension of the capsule rich in sensory nerve endings, and the nerve endings are stretched and cause pain.
5. Dysfunction: such as degeneration, necrosis, abnormal metabolic function of parenchymal cells in the inflammatory foci, mechanical obstruction and compression caused by inflammatory exudates, etc., may cause dysfunction of the inflamed organs. Pain can also affect the function of limbs.
Inflammatory lesions are mainly local, but the local lesions and the whole affect each other. In more serious inflammatory diseases, especially when pathogenic microorganisms spread and spread in the body, obvious systemic reactions often occur.
Pathogenic microbial infections often cause fever. Pathogenic microorganisms and their products can be used as fever activators to act on EP-producing cells to produce EP, which then acts on the body temperature regulation center to move the set point upward, thereby causing fever.
A certain degree of body temperature increase can enhance the body’s metabolism, promote the formation of antibodies, enhance the phagocytic function of phagocytes and the liver’s barrier detoxification function, thereby enhancing the body’s defense function. However, fever exceeding a certain degree or long-term fever can affect the body’s metabolic process and cause dysfunction of multiple systems, especially the central nervous system. If the inflammatory disease is very serious, but the body temperature does not rise, it means that the body’s reactivity and resistance are low, which is a sign of a poor prognosis.
Proliferation of mononuclear phagocyte system
Mononuclear phagocyte system cell proliferation is a manifestation of the body’s defense response. In the process of inflammation, especially caused by pathogenic microorganisms, the cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system often proliferate to varying degrees. It often manifests as local lymph node, liver, and splenomegaly. Macrophages in the bone marrow, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes proliferate, and their phagocytosis and digestion capabilities are enhanced. The B and T lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues also proliferate, and the functions of releasing lymphokines and secreting antibodies are enhanced.
Lesions of parenchymal organs
When the inflammation is severe, due to the effects of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins, as well as local blood circulation disorders, fever and other factors, the parenchymal cells of the heart, liver, kidney and other organs can undergo varying degrees of degeneration, necrosis, and organ dysfunction.
In the process of inflammation, a series of local reactions centered on the vascular system limit and eliminate the damage factors, and at the same time promote the healing of damaged tissues. The exudation of liquid can dilute toxins, swallow and transport necrotic tissue