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By | March 1, 2021

jimmy neutron memes:Thorne has made extraordinary achievements in the academic field when he was young. At the age of thirty, he became one of the youngest full professors in the history of California Institute of Technology. He received a bachelor’s degree from California Institute of Technology in 1962 and a doctorate from Princeton University in 1965.

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Geometrodynamics of Cylindrical

Thorne returned to California Institute of Technology in 1967 and was hired as an associate professor. Three years later, he was promoted to the position of professor. In 1981, he served as “Professor William Conan”. From 1991 to 2009, he was named “Feynman Theoretical Physics”. “Professor”. After resigning, he was engaged in writing and making films, but he still continued scientific research. His first film project was “Interstellar”, and he worked with director Christopher Nolan to complete this film.These are used in jimmy neutron memes.

Honorary Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics

For many years, Thorne has played the role of tutor and dissertation instructor for many frontier theoretical scholars. Most of these scholars are still active in the field of observation, experiment or astrophysics of general relativity. So far, there are more than fifty graduates of the California Institute of Technology Physics PhD under Thorne.

Thorne is good at explaining the exciting and important discoveries in the fields of gravitational physics and astrophysics clearly to academic experts and general audiences. In 1999, Thorne predicted that mankind will be able to answer some of the following unsolved problems in the 21st century:

Is there such a “dark side of the universe” filled with celestial bodies like black holes?
Can we observe the birth and dark side of the universe through gravitational waves?
Can science and technology in the 21st century observe that quantum behavior occurs in objects the size of a human being?
Thorne married his first wife Linda Peterson in 1960 and had two children before divorcing in 1977. In 1984, he married his second wife, Caroli Weinstein, a professor of biomobility and physical therapy at the University of Southern California. [9]

Research areas

Thorne’s research fields are mainly in relativistic astrophysics and gravitational physics, with more emphasis on relativistic stars and black holes, especially gravitational waves. [3] The most widely known and highly controversial statement is undoubtedly his claim that wormholes may be used for interstellar travel or time travel.

Gravitational waves and LIGO

Thorne is a recognized authority on gravitational wave astronomy throughout the world. Since the 1960s, he has been studying how to generate gravitational waves from extreme events in the universe such as the collision of black holes or the collision of jimmy neutron memes stars. In 1975, he and Rainer Weiss tried to improve the 5-foot-long prototype gravitational wave detector designed and manufactured by Weiss in jimmy neutron memes.  In 1981, Thorne successfully made a prototype gravitational wave detector with an interference arm of 31 feet in the California Institute of Technology laboratory.

Thorne is one of the main initiators of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). In 1984, Thorne worked with Ronner Dreyfu and Rainer Weiss to formulate the LIGO project, which is the largest project invested by the National Science Foundation of the United States so far (2016). [13] LIGO uses laser interferometry to measure tiny length changes. Space-time disturbances caused by gravitational waves will cause the length of a special mode to change. LIGO hopes to find this special mode to detect the traces of gravitational waves.

Thorne has long been an expert in LIGO theory. He and his team have given LIGO a lot of valuable theoretical support, including laying a theoretical foundation for data analysis algorithms for detecting gravitational waves, specifying the target wave source that LIGO should detect, and designing LIGO The baffle used to control the scattered light in the beam tube, analyze the source of various noises and conceive methods to control the noise. He and the Vladimir Braginsky research group in Moscow developed a quantum non-destructive measurement device design for a new generation of gravitational wave detectors. Thorne and his student Carlton Caves developed a reaction avoidance method to make quantum non-destructive measurements of harmonic oscillators. This technique can be effectively applied to gravitational wave detection and quantum optics.

On February 11, 2016, a four-person team representing the LIGO scientific collaboration team announced that LIGO had recorded the characteristic signal generated by the collision of two black holes about 1.3 billion light-years away in September 2015. This detection is the first time that gravitational waves have been directly observed. This exploration verified an important theoretical prediction of general relativity and opened a new era of gravitational wave astronomy.

Black hole cosmology

The magnetic field lines of a cylindrical cluster.
When Thorne was pursuing his Ph.D. degree at Princeton University, his advisor, John Wheeler, initially selected him with a gravitational question: Is it possible for the magnetic field lines of a cylindrical cluster to implode due to gravity? Generally speaking, the magnetic field lines and magnetic field lines of a cylindrical magnet will repel each other. If the magnetic field lines are not gathered by the magnet, these magnetic field lines will explode outward. But according to general relativity. Since the magnetic field is also energy, given a strong enough magnetic field, the strong gravitational force generated by its energy will gather the magnetic field lines of a cylindrical cluster together, without the restraint effect of a magnet at all. However, this situation is likely to be unstable, and stronger gravity is likely to cause these magnetic field lines to implode. After some research and applying the Einstein field equation to this problem, Thorne gave a theoretical proof: the magnetic field lines of a cylindrical bundle can never implosion due to succumbing to gravity.

Why doesn’t the magnetic field lines of a cylindrical cluster implode, while the spherical star implodes? Thorne tried to find the answer to this question, he found that only when the object is compressed in all directions, gravity can restrain the internal pressure. Thorne proposed the ring conjecture to express this understanding. The ring conjecture shows that an object that undergoes an implosion will collapse into a black hole with an event horizon. If and only if, the compressed perimeter of the object will be smaller than the object’s in any direction. “Critical Perimeter”. [Note 1] In other words, the object will collapse into a black hole with an event horizon. If and only if, the sphere formed by the Schwarzschild radius of the object can completely enclose the object.

why are there jimmy neutron neo nazi memes:In the field of black hole thermodynamics, John Wheeler’s graduate student Jacob Bekenstein claimed that the surface area of ​​a black hole can be used to measure entropy; if a pile of entropy-containing matter is thrown into the black hole, the surface of the black hole will respond to this action. The area will increase. Analyzing this argument further, Thorne and postdoctoral fellow Warjek Zurik conceived an ideal experiment: throw some matter with mass, angular momentum, and electric charge into a black hole. Once these matter enter the event horizon of the black hole, It is impossible to know the properties of these materials except mass, angular momentum, and charge from outside the horizon, because, according to the hairless theorem, black holes have only three characteristics: mass, angular momentum, and charge. Thorne and Zurik deduced from this, given the initial black hole and the final black hole, how many ways there are to throw this matter into it, the logarithm of this number must be the increase in the entropy of the black hole. Thorne and Zurik concluded that the entropy of a black hole is the logarithm of the number of methods that can be made into the black hole.Thanks to the basic expositions and inspirations contributed by cosmologists Richard Hanni, Remo Ruffini, etc. in the 1970s, Thorne and his students developed an infinitely useful paradigm for studying black hole physics. For the membrane paradigm. For any phenomenon that occurs outside a black hole, the laws of black hole physics that can be written by the curved space-time paradigm, the membrane paradigm can also be written equivalently, and it is more simple and clear. Using the membrane paradigm, Thorne elaborated on the Brandford-Zinaj process.

Thorne, Igor Novikov and Dunn Page jointly developed the general relativity theory of black hole accretion disks. Using this theory, they estimated that if the mass of the black hole grows to the previous two due to accretion. Times, the rotation speed of the black hole can be increased to as high as 99.8% of the rotation speed allowed by general relativity. Due to the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the accretion disk and the electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the black hole, these two mechanisms will produce a reaction torque, which is the maximum rotation speed of the black hole, which may also be the maximum black hole rotation speed allowed by nature, and the maximum accretion The efficiency is 30%.

Wormholes and time travel

Wormholes provide a shortcut for communication between two space regions that are far apart in the universe. The red line represents the path through normal space, and the green line represents the shortcut through the wormhole.
When Carl Sagan was writing the science fiction novel “Contacting the Future,” he asked Thorne some questions about interstellar travel, which aroused Thorne’s interest in studying wormholes. Sagan is not an expert in general relativity. He originally wanted to use black holes for interstellar travel. Thorne reminded Sagan that black holes are not a calm place. Space ships entering black holes will be constantly attacked by electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. These electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations accelerated to extremely high energy by gravity will destroy the spacecraft extremely quickly. Therefore, wormholes must be used instead.

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Wormhole is an imaginary multi-connected space-time entity, like a black hole, it involves super strong gravitation, but the difference is that it has two endpoints, enter from one end, and can enter from the other end come out. Therefore, science fiction novels often describe wormholes as a high-speed passage through the starry universe, or a time machine that travels through the past, the present, and the future. However, at that time, physicists did not know whether wormholes corresponded to known physical theories.

Thorne published a paper “Wormholes, Time Machines and Weak Energy Conditions” in “Physics Review Letters” with two top students from the California Institute of Technology Mike Morris and Eve Utesiwo [20], in the article They clarified that most wormholes are not passable, and that the passable wormholes must use some kind of anti-gravitational strange substance as the building material of the cave wall. Strange anti-gravitational matter should be found in the universe. Anti-gravity can stop the black hole formed by the implosion of ordinary mass-bearing objects due to gravity. Negative energy can generate antigravity. Some quantum systems can be in a negative energy state, which means that the laws of physics do not exclude the existence of strange matter in the universe. [19] Hawking had previously discovered in 1974 that the quantum fluctuations near the event horizon of black holes have strange properties. Later, Robert Wald and Utesiwo confirmed that the curvature distorted the quantum fluctuations and promoted their strange properties. However, physicists still don’t know whether quantum fluctuations can keep the interior of the wormhole empty.

jimmy neutron neo nazi memes: Thorne and the two doctoral students further elaborated that if the laws of physics allow the creation and maintenance of a passable wormhole in space, the wormhole can also be converted into a time machine. However, this is likely to violate causality. As for whether it can be Creating and maintaining a wormhole that can be used for passage involves some unclear topics, such as the cosmological censorship hypothesis, quantum gravity, quantum field theory, and so on. After learning of the publication of this paper, Novikov said with great pleasure that he can also publish papers on time machines from now on. Thorne’s thesis marks that the topic of time machine has entered the field of science from the field of science fiction.

Thorne and Sung-Won Kim, a Korean postdoctoral fellow, have developed a versatile physical mechanism. This mechanism uses the explosive growth of the vacuum polarization of the quantum field to destroy any kind of wormhole that attempts to travel back in time, thereby preventing space-time from developing a closed time-like curve, that is, preventing any time back in the past. travel. However, Thorne and many cosmological authorities are still not sure whether this conclusion is correct, because when the wormhole begins to be destroyed, that is, when the quantum field law of curved space-time does not apply, the quantum gravity theory must be used instead.

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