Types of immunity quizlet:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease that attacks the myelin sheath of the central nervous system. Among them, relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common types of immunity, accounting for about 85% of MS patients worldwide. Partial or complete remission of focal neurological symptoms is a sign of RRMS.
common types of immunity
Most patients with RRMS will eventually develop secondary progressive MS (SPMS), but due to the continuous emergence of new disease-modifying therapies (DMT) with varying efficacy, the precise prevalence of SPMS is unclear.
Recently, a retrospective study conducted by Coret and colleagues on DMT and its impact on SPMS conversion rate showed that although long-term treatment may reduce the number of developing SPMS, the time for patients with disease conversion to reach this stage may be different. The same proved in early natural history research. Unrelieved fixed symptoms indicate that the patient has progressed to SPMS. Recently, new advances in the treatment of RRMS have also drawn attention to the prevention and treatment strategies of SPMS, which ultimately debilitates. So, how much do you know about SPMS? Through the following 5 small questions, quickly check it.
Regarding the suspicious triggers of MS, which statement is correct?
A. Bad lifestyles such as smoking, sedentary, high-calorie diet
B. Personal environmental triggers with genetic predisposition to immune dysfunction
C. No known triggers
D. Occupational exposure to benzene
name the two types of acquired specific immunity quizlet:
Suspected triggers for MS include genetic susceptibility to environmental events and types of immunity quizlet dysfunction. Environmental incidents include viral or bacterial infections, exposure to chemicals, and lack of sunlight. The combination of these triggers and autoimmune genetic predisposition is a hypothesis that leads to MS. Bad lifestyles such as smoking, sedentary and high-calorie diet are not known triggers of MS, but these factors (especially smoking) can contribute to environmental events related to MS. As mentioned earlier, although the exact cause of MS is currently unknown, some specific causes of MS have been identified. In addition, occupational exposure to benzene is not a definite risk factor for MS.
Regarding recent studies on the role of the gut-brain axis in patients with SPMS, which statement is correct?
A. The gut-brain axis has nothing to do with SPMS. Some T cell subsets in SPMS patients have changed from regulatory cells to pro-inflammatory cells
B. There is no difference in inflammatory T cells between RRMS patients and SPMS patients
C. Increased T cell proliferation in SPMS patients
The discovery that the gut-brain axis with bacterial ability can promote brain inflammation has become a new theory of disease development. Among them, the study of Kadowaki et al. proved the role of the gut-brain axis in SPMS patients. And more and more evidences show that some T cells turn from regulatory cells into pro-types of immunity quizlet cells, causing autoimmune attacks on the brain. There is also a connection with abnormal function of the gut-brain axis in RRMS patients. The latest data show that the number of CCR9+ and CD4+ T cells present in RRMS patients is reduced in SPMS patients and converted into pro-inflammatory substances. Therefore, in SPMS patients, T cell proliferation did not increase, but decreased.
Where is the location of inflammatory cells related to the gray matter pathology that may lead to SPMS?
A. Demyelinating disease
B. White matter
C. Arachnoid and Pia mater
D. Spinal cord axons
types of immunity quizlet
Meninges play an important role in regulating immune cells to enter the central nervous system. In SPMS patients, inflammatory cells gather in the arachnoid and pia mater. In RRMS patients, inflammatory cells are present in demyelinating lesions, white matter of the brain and spinal cord axons. Lasserman also pointed out in a recent review that from RRMS to SPMS, in addition to simple progress or accumulation of disability, some other physiological changes will occur.
What are the signs that patients progress from RRMS to SPMS?
A. Neurological dysfunction between recurrence
B. Paresthesia is relieved
C. Cognitive dysfunction can be relieved by rest
D. The Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score is 1
Unlike RRMS patients whose symptoms improve or disappear after months or years of onset, SPMS patients will show progressive neurological disorders over time. It may recur, but usually cannot be recovered, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) may still show accumulation of lesions.
In patients diagnosed with MS, paresthesia relief usually indicates RRMS, and cognitive dysfunction that can be relieved by rest is not a symptom of MS. EDSS is a tool used to describe the severity of disability in MS patients, and an EDSS score of 1 indicates the least disability and is not suitable for SPMS patients.
Which statement about the use of DMTs in SPMS patients is correct?
A. For SPMS patients, DMTs will never be a suitable treatment option
B. If SPMS is suspected of Lyme disease, DMT treatment should be initiated
C. Regardless of the inflammatory changes in the MRI study, the initiation of DMT is applicable to all SPMS patients
D. Starting or changing DMT is suitable for SPMS patients with MRI showing inflammatory changes or confirmed clinical recurrence
Initiating or switching DMT is suitable for patients who have shown inflammatory changes or clinical evidence of disease progression in MRI studies, while DMTs are not a suitable treatment option for patients with suspected or confirmed Lyme disease.